Can magnets be used to generate electricity?

Yes. Magnetism generates electrical power, and electricity can be generated by magnets.

Can electromagnetic waves, waves which are made up of electromagnetic energy, be emitted from a ferromagnetic or other conductive material?

Yes. The wave of radio waves that are emitted from a ferromagnetic or other conductive material will, like that of waves of light or radio waves, be of a frequency of about 6.8GHz. Some people claim that electromagnetic waves also can be emitted from ferromagnetic or other conductive materials, such as paper, paperboard or paper towels. However, they are not considered electrical waves, as they are generated by a wave of electromagnetic energy, even though they are similar to a wave of light or radio waves in size, shape and frequency.

When are magnetohydrodynamic machines used?

We use magnetohydrodynamic machines to accelerate electrons and ions in order to drive a rotating magnetic field. A typical magnetohydrodynamic machine may move electrons in a confined fluid environment, or it may move ions in a free moving fluid environment. The speed of the electrons and ions in a magnetohydrodynamic machine is dictated by the relative motion of these particles. For instance, electrons often move toward their equilibrium position where they are in equilibrium to their environment. Electrons can move toward a magnetic field at a relatively lower speed. When the velocity of electrons is slowed, so that their velocity does not exceed the speed of light in free space, the electrons and ions travel freely. This motion is called “magnetic motion.” The same principle applies to ions, in that a slower moving ion (electron) can move faster with a faster ion (electron), if the relative motion of particles is the same.

What are the disadvantages of magnetohydrodynamic machines?

An important disadvantage of a magnetohydrodynamic machine is that it is difficult to control it (figure 1). Therefore, the machine might accelerate and decelerate in unpredictable ways. For this reason, it is very difficult to design a machine that could provide the desired amount of thrust when the desired acceleration and deceleration patterns are not present or desired, and it is extremely difficult to design a machine that could produce the desired amount of thrust within limited parameters.

Figure 1. Two examples of a magnetohydrodynamic machine and a dynamometer.

How do a magnetohydrodynamic machine and an electromagnetometric (EMG) machine generate different amounts of thrust?

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